泵的性能参数主要有流量和扬程，此外还有轴功率、转速和必需汽蚀余量。流量是指单位时间内通过泵出口输出的液体量，一般采用体积流量；扬程是单位重量输送液体从泵入口至出口的能量增量 ，对于容积式泵，能量增量主要体现在压力能增加上，所以通常以压力增量代替扬程来表示。泵的效率不是一个独立性能参数，它可以由别的性能参数例如流量、扬程和轴功率按公式计算求得。反之，已知流量、扬程和效率，也可求出轴功率。 泵的各个性能参数之间存在着一定的相互依赖变化关系，可以通过对泵进行试验，分别测得和算出参数值，并画成曲线来表示，这些曲线称为泵的特性曲线。每一台泵都有特定的特性曲线，由泵制造厂提供。通常在工厂给出的特性曲线上还标明推荐使用的性能区段，称为该泵的工作范围。泵的实际工作点由泵的曲线与泵的装置特性曲线的交点来确定。选择和使用泵，应使泵的工作点落在工作范围内，以保证运转经济性和安全。此外，同一台泵输送粘度不同的液体时，其特性曲线也会改变。通常，泵制造厂所给的特性曲线大多是指输送清洁冷水时的特性曲线。对于动力式泵，随着液体粘度增大，扬程和效率降低，轴功率增大，所以工业上有时将粘度大的液体加热使粘性变小，以提高输送效率。
The performance parameters of the pump mainly include flow and head, in addition to shaft power, speed and necessary NPSH. Flow refers to the amount of liquid output through the pump outlet in unit time, generally volume flow is used; head is the energy increment from the pump inlet to the outlet of the liquid delivered in unit weight. For positive displacement pumps, the energy increment is mainly reflected in the increase of pressure energy, so the pressure increment is usually used to replace the head. The efficiency of the pump is not an independent performance parameter, which can be calculated by other performance parameters such as flow, head and shaft power according to the formula. On the contrary, the shaft power can also be calculated when the flow, head and efficiency are known There is a certain interdependence between the performance parameters of the pump. You can test the pump, measure and calculate the parameter values respectively, and draw a curve to express them. These curves are called the characteristic curve of the pump. Each pump has a specific characteristic curve, which is provided by the pump manufacturer. Generally, the characteristic curve given by the factory also indicates the recommended performance section, which is called the working range of the pump.
The actual working point of the pump is determined by the intersection of the curve of the pump and the device characteristic curve of the pump. When selecting and using the pump, the working point of the pump shall be within the working range to ensure the operation economy and safety. In addition, when the same pump delivers liquid with different viscosity, its characteristic curve will also change. Generally, the characteristic curve given by the pump manufacturer mostly refers to the characteristic curve when delivering clean cold water. For the power pump, with the increase of liquid viscosity, the head and efficiency decrease, and the shaft power increases, so in industry, sometimes the liquid with high viscosity is heated to reduce the viscosity, so as to improve the delivery efficiency.